Gastroenterology (Medicine & Surgery)

The scope of gastroenterology is a medical specialty that primarily deals with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders and diseases related to the digestive system. Gastroenterologists have specialized expertise in the following areas: Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, Colon (Large Intestine), Pancreas, Gall Bladder and Bile Ducts, Liver, Endoscopy and Colonoscopy, Nutrition, Interventional Procedures & Motility Disorders. Overall, gastroenterologists play a crucial role in maintaining digestive system health, diagnosing gastrointestinal disorders, and providing treatments that range from lifestyle modifications and medications to surgical interventions when necessary. Their expertise extends to both common conditions like acid reflux and complex diseases such as liver cirrhosis, making them vital healthcare professionals in ensuring digestive health.


The scope of urology is a medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of conditions and diseases involving the urinary tract and male reproductive system. Urologists are trained to manage a wide range of issues related to these systems. Here are some key aspects within the scope of urology: Urinary Tract Conditions, Prostate Health, Male Reproductive Health, Kidney Health, Bladder Health, Testicular Health, Pediatric Urology, Urological Surgery, Laparoscopic and Endoscopic Procedures, Preventive Care, Research and Innovation. In summary, urology encompasses a wide range of conditions and treatments related to the urinary tract and male reproductive system. Urologists are highly specialized medical professionals who provide care for patients of all ages, from children to adults, and they play a crucial role in maintaining urological health and addressing various urological disorders.


Nephrology is a medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of kidney-related conditions and disorders. The scope of nephrology encompasses a wide range of functions and conditions related to the kidneys, such as: Kidney Disease, Dialysis, Kidney Transplantation, Hypertension, Electrolyte and Fluid Balance, Glomerular Diseases, Renal Stones, Systemic Diseases Affecting the Kidneys, Pediatric Nephrology, Research and Clinical Trials. In summary, nephrology deals with the kidneys and their associated functions, covering a wide range of kidney-related conditions, from acute problems like kidney injuries to chronic conditions like kidney disease, as well as the management of kidney transplants and associated medical issues.

Orthopedics (Medicine & Surgery)

Orthopedics, also known as orthopedic surgery, is a medical specialty that primarily focuses on the musculoskeletal system. This specialty encompasses a wide range of conditions and treatments related to bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, tendons, and other structures that support the body’s form and function. The scope of orthopedics includes: Fractures and Trauma, Joint Replacement, Arthritis Management, Sports Medicine, Spine Disorders, Pediatric Orthopedics, Hand and Wrist Surgery, Foot and Ankle Disorders, Orthopedic Oncology, Orthopedic Rehabilitation, Orthopedic Traumatology, Orthopedic Research and Innovation. The scope of orthopedics is extensive, covering a wide range of conditions and treatments related to the musculoskeletal system. Orthopedic specialists aim to improve the quality of life for patients by restoring mobility, reducing pain, and enhancing the function of the musculoskeletal system.

Ear-Nose-Throat (ENT)

The scope of Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) medicine, also known as otolaryngology, encompasses a wide range of medical conditions and treatments related to the head and neck region. ENT specialists, or otolaryngologists, are trained to diagnose and manage various disorders and diseases within this area. ENT specialists employ a variety of diagnostic tools and treatments, including endoscopy, surgical procedures, hearing tests, and medical management. They collaborate with other medical professionals when necessary and play a critical role in improving patients’ quality of life by addressing disorders and conditions that affect their hearing, breathing, voice, and overall well-being within the head and neck area.

General Surgery

General surgery is a medical specialty that deals with a wide range of surgical procedures involving various parts of the body. General surgeons are trained to diagnose, treat, and manage a broad spectrum of surgical conditions. While the specific procedures and areas of expertise can vary, the scope of general surgery typically includes Abdominal Surgery, Trauma Surgery, Breast Surgery, Thyroid and Endocrine Surgery, Soft Tissue Surgery, Vascular Surgery, Gastrointestinal Surgery, Hernia Surgery, Minimally Invasive Surgery & Emergency Surgery. It’s important to note that while general surgeons can perform a wide range of procedures, they may also refer patients to specialists in certain cases where highly specialized expertise is required. General surgery is a diverse field, and surgeons may choose to further sub-specialize in specific areas based on their interests and training.

Advanced Laparoscopic Surgery

Advanced Laparoscopic Surgery, also known as minimally invasive surgery or keyhole surgery, involves using small incisions and specialized instruments to perform surgical procedures. The scope of Advanced Laparoscopic Surgery is extensive and includes a wide range of procedures across various medical specialties. Here are some areas within its scope Gastrointestinal Surgery, Hernia Repair, Gynecological Surgery, Urological Surgery, Thoracic Surgery, Bariatric Surgery, Solid Organ Surgery, Gallstone Treatment, Adrenal Surgery, Pediatric Surgery, Orthopedic Surgery, ENT Surgery & Colorectal Surgery. The scope of Advanced Laparoscopic Surgery continues to expand as technology and techniques improve. It offers several advantages over traditional open surgery, including smaller incisions, reduced pain, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recovery times for patients. However, not all surgeries can be performed laparoscopically, and the decision depends on the specific patient, condition, and surgeon’s expertise.

Reconstructive Surgery

Reconstructive surgery is a medical specialty that involves restoring or repairing damaged or abnormal body structures and functions. The scope of reconstructive surgery is broad and encompasses various areas, including Trauma Reconstruction, Breast Reconstruction, Craniofacial Reconstruction, Hand Surgery, Microsurgery, Burn Reconstruction, Congenital Deformity Correction, Gender-Affirming Surgery, Skin Cancer Reconstruction, Abdominal Wall Reconstruction, Lymphedema Surgery & Maxillofacial Reconstruction. Reconstructive surgery aims to improve a patient’s quality of life by restoring function and appearance. It often involves a multidisciplinary approach, working in collaboration with other medical professionals to provide comprehensive care. The scope of reconstructive surgery continues to expand with advancements in surgical techniques and technology, allowing for more effective and precise treatments.


Gynecology is a medical specialty that primarily focuses on the health of the female reproductive system. The scope of gynecology includes Reproductive Health, Menstrual Disorders, Pregnancy Care, Contraception, Infertility, Sexual Health, Gynecological Cancer, Pelvic Health, Menopause Management, Minimally Invasive Surgery, Adolescent Gynecology, Preventive Care, Gynecological Research. In summary, gynecology encompasses a wide range of medical services and expertise related to women’s reproductive health, from adolescence through menopause and beyond. Gynecologists play a crucial role in promoting and maintaining women’s overall well-being by addressing both routine and complex reproductive health concerns.


Obstetrics is a medical specialty that primarily focuses on the care of pregnant individuals, their unborn babies, and the management of childbirth. The scope of obstetrics includes Prenatal Care, Labor and Delivery, Postpartum Care, High-Risk Pregnancies, Gynecological Issues, Family Planning, Reproductive Health, Surgical Procedures. In summary, obstetrics encompasses a wide range of medical services related to pregnancy, childbirth, and women’s reproductive health. Obstetricians play a crucial role in ensuring the well-being of both the mother and the baby throughout the prenatal, labor, delivery, and postpartum periods, as well as providing general gynecological care.

Surgical Oncology

Surgical oncology is a specialized field of medicine that focuses on the surgical management of cancer. The scope of surgical oncology is quite extensive and involves various aspects of cancer diagnosis, treatment, and care. Here are some key elements within the scope of surgical oncology: Cancer Surgery, Biopsies, Tumor Staging, Minimally Invasive Surgery, Lymph Node Dissection, Reconstructive Surgery, Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC), Multidisciplinary Collaboration, Clinical Trials, Patient Education and Support. The scope of surgical oncology is continually evolving with advancements in surgical techniques, technology, and our understanding of cancer biology. Surgical oncologists play a critical role in the multidisciplinary approach to cancer care, working together with other healthcare professionals to provide the best possible outcomes for cancer patients.


Pulmonology is the medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and management of diseases and conditions related to the respiratory system. The scope of pulmonology encompasses a wide range of disorders and aspects of respiratory health. Some key areas within the scope of pulmonology include: Respiratory Infections, Asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD), Lung Cancer, Pulmonary Function Testing, Sleep Disorders, Allergies and Immunologic Lung Diseases, Occupational Lung Diseases, Pulmonary Hypertension, Pulmonary Rehabilitation, Lung Transplantation. Pulmonologists often work closely with other healthcare professionals, including respiratory therapists, radiologists, and thoracic surgeons, to provide comprehensive care for patients with respiratory issues. Their expertise is crucial in helping individuals breathe easier and managing a wide range of respiratory conditions.


Dermatology is a medical specialty that primarily focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, and management of conditions related to the skin, hair, nails, and mucous membranes. The scope of dermatology is broad and encompasses a wide range of conditions and procedures, including: Skin Disorders, Skin Cancer, Cosmetic Dermatology, Hair and Scalp Disorders, Nail Disorders, Allergies and Patch Testing, Pediatric Dermatology, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), Mohs Surgery, Autoimmune Skin Disorders, Aesthetic Procedures, Wound Healing, Infections and Infestations, Vascular Conditions, Moles and Skin Lesions. The scope of dermatology extends beyond just the skin’s surface, as it often intersects with other medical specialties when skin conditions are indicative of underlying systemic diseases. Dermatologists play a crucial role in promoting skin health, addressing aesthetic concerns, and diagnosing and treating a wide array of dermatological conditions.

Physiotherapy & Rehabilitation

The scope of physiotherapy and rehabilitation is broad and encompasses a range of services and treatments aimed at restoring and improving physical function, mobility, and quality of life for individuals who have experienced injuries, illnesses, or conditions that affect their physical well-being. Here are some key aspects of the scope of physiotherapy and rehabilitation: Injury Rehabilitation, Orthopedic Rehabilitation, Neurological Rehabilitation, Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation, Geriatric Rehabilitation, Pediatric Rehabilitation, Pain Management, Sports Rehabilitation, Workplace Rehabilitation, Women’s Health, Amputee Rehabilitation, Home Health Rehabilitation, Educational and Preventive Services, Assistive Devices and Mobility Aids. The scope of physiotherapy and rehabilitation is continually expanding as research and technology advance, allowing for more effective treatments and improved outcomes for patients with a wide range of physical challenges. Physiotherapists work in various settings, including hospitals, outpatient clinics, sports facilities, schools, and home care, to provide these valuable services.